Before we discuss the types of communities, we must first define them.
A community is a group of people who live in one place and share certain common characteristics. There are many types of communities that we will discuss in detail, but first let’s look at the standard capacities of communities.
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Land and feelings are the most common element of the social cohesion that characterizes a community.
According to sociology, a community is a set of important social bonds within a group. The size of the group may vary, but all members have something in common. Communities are social. It consists of a network of relationships that operate within certain limits and that are implicitly or explicitly shared and agreed between the members.
Each community is characterised by established traditions and specific patterns of behaviour that can be suggested or even defined by. Certain links are shared among the members, such as geographical area, origin, experience, etc.
The Community is a social institution offering a stable structure of treaties; it guarantees order and social meaning.
People with common interests or passions* can form a community. For example, a community of pianists. There are not many strict rules in these communities because they are limited in size and scope.
A community can also consist of people working together to bring about change. Like the feminist community. There can be different shades of these communities. Every culture and philosophy interprets these actions differently.
Living together in a geographical area can also form a community. For example, a community of former Muslim patriots in Poland. It is a hybrid of the two types of interest and action groups. The geographical location is also at the service of the concepts of nationalism and nation-state.
Communities may be constituted by persons belonging to the same profession or the same activity. For example, a community of young doctors. These communities exist both nationally and internationally.
Some communities bring external events or situations together. Like the refugee community.
According to sociology, there are three types of communities. They are briefly described below:
The rural community may be described as a natural phenomenon. Every society has a rural community, even if the culture or social model of life is different. People with very similar goals and ambitions form a community that is the product of natural free will.
Agriculture is a fundamental part of the identity of rural society. People in rural communities are more homogeneous and face each other more often.
In most cases the necessary facilities such as schools, hospitals, police stations, etc. are lacking in such a community life. These communities are often seen as lagging behind due to a lack of adequate infrastructure. Residents of rural communities usually have to travel to the nearest town to access the necessary services, such as health care, etc., in order to be able to benefit from these services.
Rural communities consist mainly of a smaller population living in subsistence areas where natural resources are readily available.
Suburban communities are often seen as intermediaries to rural and urban communities. That is why it is also called suburban. They are larger than the rural community and larger than the urban community. These communities are often located outside the big city. They have limited resources and little political autonomy.
Suburban areas are often referred to as detached dwellings or housing units closer together.
Apartments are rarely found in suburban settlements. Peripheral urban areas developed mainly in the 19th and 20th centuries. This is due to improvements in infrastructure, such as rail transport, which has made it easier to travel by train. Suburban communities are generally inhabited around a multitude of adjacent plains. In some countries these suburban areas are referred to as urban islands or cities.
The urban community is often seen as the opposite of the rural community. The way of life of the urban community is very impersonal, complex and heterogeneous in its identity and way of life.
Communities are the product of rational choice. There is a broad division of labour, specialised in occupations and jobs, which forms the identity of the urban community. Modern facilities and infrastructure also play a central role in urban communities. Government officials and diplomatic activities are also fundamental for urban communities.
Urban communities are based on a large population, which means that urban areas are generally overpopulated.
As we said, there are three types of communities. Let us now talk about the typology of the community organizations that Schubert and Borkman proposed in 1991.
They are based on organisational structures. This typology is intended to explain self-help groups, but offers a broader view of the nature of communities. They help to understand different forms of organizational systems.
Organizations are another large form of community. In this section on types of communities, we have listed different types of organizational communities for your information and understanding.
Five types of municipalities follow according to the typology of the organisation:
It is a kind of community based on individuals who are not closely related to each other. In some cases, this may also explain subordination. These parishioners are not appointed or attached to any church or board of directors.
They may attend a duly convened meeting only if their actions are necessary to achieve a common objective.
These communities are *bound together for a common purpose or cause. They work together in a uniform and collective environment. It can be seen as a partly individualistic and united community.
Affiliated communities are communities that have a particular community or a common interest among their members because of their association with an organisation. For example, an affiliated military community would mean that they would spend part of their lives in direct relation to the military lifestyle, such as military service, kinship, etc.
A hybrid community is a kind of community based on a hybrid social model that has two or more lifestyles. For example: Transition from one state to another, from an agricultural state to an industrial state. The modern hybrid community is based on social and technological progress, such as the emergence of virtual communities.
It is a kind of managed community where there is some management to ensure the cohesion of the Community.
Historical background of the Communities
Ferdinand Tonnis introduced the concept of community in 1897. He used this concept to describe modern life and explained the transience of society. The social transformation of communities is linked to rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. Religion can first and foremost be seen as a connecting mechanism between communities.
In today’s world, traditional communities have evolved into globalised networks connecting groups of households both locally and globally.
According to Berry Wellman, the current community can be described as a networked individualism. This is a type of community in which individual members are poorly connected without physical space.
They are subject to free restrictions and are not bound to the same territory. In most cases their interactions are not visible. This applies to the emergence of virtual communities. In the age of the global village, virtual communities are formed through connectivity and technological tools such as the Internet.
What is the difference between society and community?
An essential difference between society and community is that society is based on the interaction between different people. On the other hand, a community is built on the interaction of people who share a community.
Individuality is fundamental to both society and the community. A society consists of different communities.
Communities are parts of society. The environment is more important to society than the community.
There are three types of primary communities and five types of organizational communities, which have five standard functions, as discussed earlier in this article.
The study of the community is a fundamental aspect of sociology because it gives us an idea of how society functions on a micro level. The basic norms and conventions of a community distinguish them from other forms of communities.
What makes a community a community depends on the community within the community. The community does not focus on individual characteristics, but on the similarities that bring people together. This article is not only an introduction to the types of communities, but also describes the basic structure of the community.
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types of community pdf,characteristics of community